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Gay (2005) states that “descriptive quantitative research involves collecting numerical data to test hypotheses or answer questions concerning current status conducted either through self-reports collected through test, questionnaires, and interviews, or through observation”.
- Gay, L., Mills. G., & Airasian, P. (2006). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (8th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall
One of Qualitative design; An Interview
This instrument of an interview is used to obtain information in detail about factors or isolated factors that lead to public perception of the police lockups. By the interview session, the research information is obtained directly especially the matters related to the facts, beliefs, feelings, necessities and the burden required to achieve the objective of the study. Within the interview sessions, it is required of two parties (the researcher and the subject or an informant) to interact directly and actively. The close relationship between the subject and the researcher creates an atmosphere of cooperation while the information is obtained and trusted. The type of informants in the interview session also can be known as the researcher observes the reactions shown by the informants as the subjects during the interviews (Othman Lebar, 2007).
A face-to-face interview session with the informant individually. According to Creswell (2014), this approach is popular in educational research, where a data-gathering process from a small size of respondents and they do not hesitate to speak the truth clearly and can share ideas with comfort.
And, in the meeting, the informants will be explained on the purpose of the study beforehand and their right along their participation in the study. A consent form was given in order to ensure the privacy, obscurity, and a protection from harm of the informants. They can make an excuse if they wish to withdraw from the participation in the study. There is no restriction for them to do so.
According to Creswell (2014), the ethics in qualitative method of collecting data is that the researcher needs to follow in an interview method is the preparation of the adequate equipment. The researcher should check the digital recorder equipment in addition to the protocol or small note book to write brief notes prior to the interview. Next, the identity of all respondents and informants is confidential and is considered to be secured. The interview recorded will be kept in different storage for security purposes.
POPULATION N SAMPLING
According to Creswell (2008) population is a group of individuals who have the same characteristic. Population is complete elements such as person or object that possess some common characteristics define by the sampling criteria established by the researcher.
So, the number of respondents interviewed is not an issue in qualitative studies as there is no specific rules in determining the size of sample who is being interviewed (Patton 2002; Connaway & Powell 2010).
The researcher chose to apply Purposive sampling in collecting data from the informants. The sampling aims to involve the process of identifying and selecting individuals or groups of individuals who have specific knowledge or have experienced the same or nearly the same phenomena with the respective study (Creswell, 2014).
According to Punch (1998), reliability is a central concept in measurement, and it basically means consistency. Also, Clarke (2003) state that reliability refers to “the extent of an investigation which produces consistent result”.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Saturday, July 27, 2019
AN ARTICLE: TO IMPROVE GRAMMAR SKILL THROUGH ESSAY WRITING PRACTICES.
Of four English language skills, writing skill can be considered as a prime skill which help students to learn the other skills such as grammar and reading. According to Ashok Sapkota (2012), writing is one of the most important skills in learning a new language and it is a productive skill. Indeed, writing is rooted in every aspect of human life, and it continues to shape human interaction towards the 21st century globalisation era. In which, writing can show the power and a chance to share or influence other people, whether with their thoughts, ideas and opinions (Kamehameha Schools, 2007). Clearly, it is a unique task of an individual and there is a place for them to express themselves in different way to the society and to the world.
Good writing requires good knowledge of grammar practices, including the art of using rhetoric of arranging words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs, so it is easy to catch up the reader's attention. Briefly, the writer concluded that the grammar ability is vital to create correct sentences both in written form which is in term of writing practices, and also, in oral language skill (Muh. Arief Muhsin, 2016).
1.2 Problem Statement
The veteran English teacher, Ibrahim Zakaria put forward that even intelligent young graduates have a problem in getting ideas across in English Lang. These students with a poor command of English may could score strong credits in other subjects in the SPM examination (Thang, S. M. 2004), but they fail in English Lang subject. This is worrisome for all parties involved such as parents and teachers when students still could not perform well in English subject even after they spent eleven years studying the subject since primary school level up to their secondary school level (Khairiah, 1970; Naginder, 2006; Nor Hashimah et al., 2008; Saadiyah & Kaladevi, 2009).
The executive director of Malaysian Employers Federation (MEF), Datuk Shamsuddin Bardan said that there are currently about 200,000 unemployed graduates in the country and one of the main reasons for this scenario is their lack of English proficiency. And, their bad performance in English Lang is believed to appear from the attitude of very technology-savvy and constantly bound to their gadgets to interact one another using short forms, acronyms and slang words (THE STAR ONLINE, 2015).
Moreover, some of them do not know how to write a report or any article academically using the correct English. Even, they have problems in writing a report for their employers in the company. Most of students claimed that writing in English Lang is very difficult (Parilah .M Shah, 2011). To prove, some students claim that they are answering the writing question using the Malay Lang, some of them just writing a short paragraph only, or some are handing in a blank answer sheet.
In addition, writing practice is the main course where students can learn coincidentally another skill like grammar, vocabulary and comprehension. Dovey (2010) confirmed that English Lang especially it’s writing component is very important as it will help students not only to perform well in their schools’ examination, but later at the higher level as well as in future professional life too. However, almost many teachers reviewed that the aspects connected to grammar beyond the sentence are absent in students’ writing. Moreover, as opposed to teachers, students have set in mind that learning grammar is something boring, rule-oriented, and old-fashioned. Most of them are unresponsive to grammar and regard it as a necessarily useless thing which they would, if they could, to eliminate it totally from the English lesson. Grammar is also felt to be very difficult especially by weaker students (Tony Burner, 2005). Despite the exposure to English language, both primary and secondary schools’ students in Malaysia still struggle in writing well, as their inability to write well is believed to due to the influence of their mother tongue and also insufficient knowledge of grammatical rules and concepts (Charanjit Kaur S. Singh et al., 2017).
And, the researcher intends to investigate how writing practices can improve students’ English skills especially rules of language and grammar.
1.3 Research Questions
2. How the writing practices can effectively help to improve the grammar skill?
3. What is the aspect of grammar rules which appear the most in students’ writing?
1.4 Research Objectives
1. To determine the significant relationship between grammar and writing practices.
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Wednesday, July 17, 2019
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL: READING STORY BOOKS AMONG MALAYSIAN STUDENTS: ITS IMPACT ON THEIR LANGUAGE SKILLS
Reading story books is important in improving students’ success in learning English language. Hence, students need to have high reading interests and reading skill towards story books. The purposes of this study were to identify the impact of reading story books on students’ language skills and social experiences. This study was carried out among 70 students (20 students from primary year 6 and 50 students from secondary schools) in Selangor. The Researcher distributed a set of questionnaire form in order to collect the data using a quantitative methodology. Data were analysed as well as presented in the form of frequency, means, standard deviation and independent t – test. From this study, it is found that students have relatively low interests to read English story books materials and that there is no significant difference between primary and secondary school students. From these findings, it can be suggested that teachers and parents should take action with regards to develop and enhance Malaysian students’ reading story books interests. It is hoped that the finding of this study would enlighten the relevant literature of the area.
Keywords: students’ reading habit, primary and secondary school students, English story books materials, Selangor, short stories, language skills.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Reading habit is a positively good habit on a journey to success in future, and it is an important activity in a society as they can acquiring knowledge and information. Zurina Khairuddin (2013) wrote that reading is the path to success in school and life. Many advantages of reading can be collected by students in term of their knowledge of vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar errors, comprehension and even messages that are extracted out after finish reading. Moreover, reading habit not only good for children and students, but it also is a healthy practice of exercising a spare time among adults. Previously, Wallace (1992) had mentioned that reading became a major part in a daily life of the public especially at the time that literacy is given emphasis. Sometimes, literacy can be used as a sign of someone who possesses skills and knowledge especially in the field of language and linguistics (Siti Hamin Stapa, Nadzrah Abu Bakar & Rozmel Abdul Latiff, 2007), and this is believed to achieve by a lot of readings.
When our life is indulged within the 21-century era, technology ICT development is rapidly influencing almost every aspect of life, including the materials and information people can surf and read online. The lucky is, this technology is seen to encourage people to actively participate in any recent and updating activities via Internet and ease them to search for any information they need. As considered by Shahnil Asmar Saaid and Zaliffah Abd Wahab (2014), people are now using the web and wireless solution to satisfy their information needs. For example, students can surf websites and blogs to practice reading, whether as their hobby or for assignments and examinations. This is clear to note that the wide usage of ICT technology in education coincidentally build a wide space for students and educators, and all the readers to practice reading. This is claimed by Imran Ariff (2010) who stated that today’s technology-adapted to world stresses on knowledge and hence the importance of reading.
Reading method in the teaching and learning session still effectively relevant to apply in the classroom, even just as an additional input. This is important to practice reading in the classroom because reading is one way to collect the treasure of knowledge. Specifically, it can help students to improve their language skills, while reading stories may contribute to the additional skill and knowledge of comprehension, vocabulary, grammar as well as the lessons they extract out after reading all the chapters.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Imran Ariff Bin Mohd Ariffin. (2010). Tabiat Membaca Di Kalangan Pelajar Kemahiran Hidup Di Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (Thesis, 2010)
Shahnil Asmar Saaid and Zaliffah Abd Wahab (2014). The Impact of Digital-Based Materials on Undergraduates’ Reading Habit. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 4, No. 3, May 2014.
Siti Hamin Stapa, Nadzrah Abu Bakar & Rozmel Abdul Latiff (2007). LITERASI PENULISAN BAHASA INGGERIS DALAM KALANGAN PELAJAR LUAR BANDAR: IMPLIKASI TERHADAP PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN. Jurnal UKM, Volume 2, Number 2.
Wallace, C. (1992). Reading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zurina Khairuddin (2013). A Study of Students' Reading Interests in a Second Language. School of English Language Studies, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. International Education Studies; Vol. 6, No. 11; 2013 ISSN 1913-9020 E-ISSN 1913-9039.
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Sunday, July 14, 2019
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#A SUGGESTION FOR THOSE WHO 'STUCK' DO NOT KNOW WHAT THE TOPIC OF HIS OR HER RESEARCH STUDY
1. The contemporary linguistic analysis in facing the industrial revolution era 4.0
2. Teachers readiness in teaching the language in the industrial revolution era 4.0
3. Technology-enhanced language teaching and learning
4. Mobile-assisted language learning
5. Current trends of evaluation and assessment in language learning
6. Translation scope in the industrial revolution era 4.0
7. Online learning
8. Curriculum development in facing the industrial revolution era 4.0
9. Project-based learning in language learning
10. Teaching strategies to foster ‘Higher Order Thinking Skill’
11. HOT’s-based learning process
12. ICT-based ESL learning
13. English Language Testing and assessment
14. Artificial Intelligent development in language learning
15. Story books as one best method in language learning
16. Distance education and lifelong learning
17. Integration of the language learning in the classroom
18. English for students with special needs
19. Teaching literature
20. Blended language learning
21. Character education through ESL
22. Digital literacy in the classroom
23. Storytelling in language learning
24. Approaches and methods in learning ESL
25. English and Islamic education
26. Language policy
27. Effective methods in teaching and learning literature
28. Teaching ESL in response to current market demands
29. Translation assessment
30. The development of critical literacy among students
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Saturday, July 13, 2019
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