I am a Teacher, lecturer cum Private tutor, and Freelance writer for your thesis, essay or assignment. I like writing blog, and novel in my free time. I love watching horror movie and variety show, especially RUNNING MAN. I love travel but it too costly,.. I am not smiling, but everyone will smile whenever they meet me,..

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Saturday, November 24, 2018


TITLE: ______________________________________________________




Below is the example of the abstract shared by one of my friend.. a very respectful professor from one university.....



Objective - The research is aimed at decoding the implementation model Social Audit on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and developing a new model for CSR.
Methodology – The study used qualitative research methodology using ..................... This study scrutinises all models of CSR separating capitalism ....................................................
Findings – The study observed several unfair practices without ensuring social and distributive justice to the indigenous community where the mining activities were organised. Several concepts linked to sustainable development were evolved ............................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Novelty –By exploring the Luwu area based CSR activities, this study verifies all existing CSR practices and social audit models further to generate a sustainable corporate social responsibility model for corporate, government and allied stakeholders.
Type of paper –This research paper integrates conceptual and empirical approachThe study followed qualitative research methodology with .............................................................................
Contribution - This research will support policy agreement between governments, industry and the firms towards effective SCSR implementation.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Social Audit, Sustainable development, Capitalism, Local wisdom.

1. Introduction

(1 / 2 paragraphs)

2. Literature Review
2.1 ............................                            ⤗

2.2 ............................                            ⤗

2.3 ............................                            ⤗         All lit. reviews are in 6 / 7 paragraphs
2.4 ............................                            ⤗          INCLUDING THE RESEARCH QUESTION                                                                                                          AT THE END OF LIT REVIEW...

2.5 ...........................                            ⤗

Research questions                              ⤗

3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research philosophy
3.2 Research Design and Approach
  (Summarize of your design - instruments - etc...)

4. Data Analysis
[[[ Below is a sample...
         Data analysis technique in this research refers to Creswell's theory (2014) is the Postmodernist     analysis method performed by referring to de construction Derrida who use ethnographic element in   exploring the culture of the indigenous peoples are marginalized into the disclosure of corporate   social responsibility. What qualitative study seeks to convey is how people have thoughts and   feelings that might affect the way they behave. Such study may occur in any number of contexts, but   here, we focus on corporate social responsibility practice and the way people responded with regard   to its benefits and management approach. The role of the researcher in qualitative research is to   attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants. This is not an easy task, as it   involves asking people to talk about things that may be very personal to them. During the research,   there was no manipulation done by the researcher either on the location of the research or research   variables. This study uses a postmodernist paradigm, because this study aims to deconstruct the   establishment of conventional theory. ]]] SAMPLE ONLY - COPY PASTE IS PROHIBITED..
- From a sample paper shared by the respective professor.....

( in 1 parag......)

Data collection Method
( in 1 parag......)

5. Discussion
( Within 4 parag...... / including the Model also being discussed)

Strategy Implication

Theoretical Implication

6. Conclusion
( in 1 / 2 parag......)

Future Research
( in 1 short parag......)



Friday, November 23, 2018



3. A story about a teenager with unusual hobby

  # Explain bout the hobby
= UNUSUAL means a bizarre or weird hobby
= or a person who like to do a strange activity as their hobby
= Example of unusual hobby;
     = do a tree-shaping
     = grave hunting
     = handcuff collecting
     = teabags cover collection
     = carving egg shells 
     = noodling (fishing with hands in the river or paddy field)
     = weather forecasting
     = cosplay
     = rebuilding antique old and broken vehicles
     = playing dead
     = appearing in the background of TV programs
     = mooing 
     = tattooing cars
     = knitting clothes
     = dried flower collecting

  # How friends also become interested in it
- Something bizarre ... if you always do / make / practice in front of them, ask them to try, once they enjoy they will make it as their own favorite hobby too. 

Begin the story with "Even though it was a strange hobby, everyone came to love it ....

"Even though it was a strange hobby, everyone came to love it until some of them come to me with a big thank. They claim that I am the starter who introduce that unusual hobby to them. Otherwise, they dont have any unique and remarkable hobby! 


1. Hobby is like tastes, it different from one person to another. 
2. People spend a lot of money and time and money for their hobby
3. Some people like a challenging hobby
4. Some others choose extreme sports as their hobby
5. People take photos and videos of themselves enjoying their hobbies
6. There is a very wide range of hobbies
7. A hobby is a special work to do by a person for the sake of an amusement
8. A hobby is an activity or interest pursued for delectation and not as a main vocation
9. Hobbies depend on several factors such as lifestyle, preference, family background etc
10.  Hobby always become the most likely to do during leisure time



2. Time.
  - Why people dont have free time?
  - Suggest ways to use time better

A discussion (The essay about TIME already put in this blog, scroll down)

Why people dont have free time?
1. Very busy - pack schedule
                     - as parents who work for life
                     - as student ... many homework, extra classes, co-curricular activities etc

2. Dont know how to manage time - no discipline
                                                        - not punctual

3. Irresponsible person - never appreciate time
                                     - dull life

4. People multitask a lot - brain cannot manage many tasks at the same time
                                        - better do and finish one task fully before another task begins
5. People dont prioritize - they dont know what should to be done first or last
                                        - Automatically they organize their time efficiently

Suggest ways to use time better
1. Must have a discipline - punctuality
                                        - appreciate time

2. Schedule your works

3. Prioritize your works

4. Avoid procrastination

5. Avoid multitasking

6. Avoid stress

7. Start early


Thursday, November 22, 2018

SPM Essay Writing: A problem during your travel.

1. About travel
-A problem you face during your travel - how you solve the problem - what is the lesson.

It was started as a beautiful evening that I woke up to the din sound of waves after tiredly wander around the town in the morning. I walked towards the window with the roses pattern curtains. The breathtaking view scenery with the sun-lit sky and sea blended together amazed me. I imagined of running and playing with my two best friends on the white sandy beach. Yeah, suddenly I missed them both. "Hurry up Tina, everyone is waiting for you downstairs!, my mid 40s mom at the door of the hotel room with a big sweet smile to me. 'Five minutes mom!' I ran to the bathroom, washed my oval pretty face. I felt so excited, Patong Beach just a few walks away. 

Rising action
After preparing myself with a green swimming suit, I ran to my family members on the beach. There were several tourists lying in the white sparkling sand, while several others were swimming in the cold blue sea water. 'Now, time to swim!' My dad tapped my shoulder while Adam, my younger brother pulled my hand towards the water. 'Dad, can I strolling along the beach first, alone, then, I join you!' I knocked Adam's head mocking his bloated belly. Adam cried angrily and left me and dad. 'Are you sure?' Dad looked at me with a wrinkle face. I nodded confidently showing my Fuji-film X-A3 in hand. My dad bought the camera when I got straight A's in the mid-exam few months ago. 'Okay, it is going to dark soon, so, only 30 minutes, then you come back here!'. 'Thank you dad, Love you the most!' 

I walked along the shore, let the gentle waves rolled endlessly and it touched my feet. I could feel the sea water was so a bit warm, and its familiar smelt of salt water filled my nostrils. My Fuji-film X-A3 played its active role and function, and all the remarkable exotic scenery around the beach could not be escaped from its eyes. All were being kept in its memory card. I staggered to one of the remote corners of the beach for the lush green of the fresh forest. Suddenly, a voice for help from the bushes not so far from me, I stood still, to confirm the sound. 'Help, help!' Somebody shouted for help behind the big canopy tree, about 150 meters ahead. I ran towards the sound, sneaking around the place. Nobody was there. 

The Climax
'Aha.. catch her Abu!' Two thin men in a shabby and smelly clothes approached me like a hungry tiger, I really shocked and terrified to see their drunken face. Tears slowly trickled down my cheeks. 'This is a fresh virgin Mat!' One of the men showed his disgusting tongue to me. At that time, I realized that I cannot show my tears and afraid. Dad already teach me about become a strong girl especially in front of the strangers. I gathered some courage left to catch their photos. 'Grab her camera Abu!' The man named Abu came closer and pulled the  camera strap from my neck. 'Please!!' I started to cry again. 'Help! Help!' I shouted at the top of my lung, ready to run. 'What are you waiting for, Abu!' Another man, Mat shouted angrily to his friend, and Abu immediately grabbed my hand. Arghhhh....... I did not know where the strength was come from, I just remembered my dad's promise to wait for me within 30 minutes! I bit his hand as hard as I could and ran away. Abu was crying painfully on the ground. Mat seemed to be panicked for a second before chasing me from behind. He snatched my feet, I fell to the ground. 'Where you want to run stupid girl!' 

Falling Action
I kicked his head very hard, and got up as fast as lightning. Immediately, I ran for my life, but the bad man, Mat was hot on my heels. I sprinted as quick as I could without even looking back to see how a distance between me and him. I jumped to avoid the rock, and rolled over the bushes, like an impala ran for his life. Out of the blue, the wailing sirens could be heard in a distance. Ohh... Dad! 'Help! Dad, help!' I cried loudly and ran fast to the beach as I could see the white sandy shore seemed to be as a torchlight, so I could soon recognize where to go. 'Tina! Tina!'. ' Sir, that was my girl!, ohhh...... ' The policemen, many of them, approached me. I fell to the ground again soon I saw a figure of my dad and mom. At that time, there was a very dark and black color around me. But, I still could hear my mom's cries and a very noisy sound from nowhere.

I was awake. Ohh.. I was in the hospital bed. One young nurse stood beside my bed to check my blood pressure. She smiled at me as I opened my eyes. Dad and mom sat on the grey sofa waited for the nurse to finish her routine work. 'Dad, mom, I am so sorry for all these incidents' I cried for forgiveness as the nurse walked out of the room. Mom hugged me tightly and dad patted my shoulder gently. 'The most important for us is your life Tina, we are so lucky you are safe, and the two guys also have been caught by the police!' Dad sat on the rattan chair beside my bed. 'Oh dad, mom, I realize several lessons to be kept in my mind. I will never walk alone again especially in a strange place like this. I also must continue the taekwando class that you have registered for me dad, I know that I have to have the art of defending myself from any threat'. 'Yes, you must attend the class attentively dear, for your own good!' Mom kissed my cheek. I smiled at both of them gracefully. 

A summary

1. During travel.... So - Tina travels to Patong Beach. Patong Beach somewhere in Thailand.

2. Face a trouble
- The trouble is nearly being kidnapped and raped by two men....

3. How to solve?
- Tina kick ... shout for help .....run away..... brave and courage

4. Lesson
- Dont walk alone...
-Take a taekwando class with a focus

Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Booking.com is my First Choice for travel and holiday

maznah08 https://booking.com/s/39_4/maznah08

Click above link will bring you to Booking.com to find the most suitable yet affordable accommodation wherever you go or travel, not only within the country, but when you go abroad too.

From my experience in traveling around Asia, I always choose Booking.com because:
1. It always gives a promotional discount, deal of the day to the members
2. And, if you are a frequent traveler, you can get a genius bonus, and a chance to get the cheapest deal is there for you
3. You can modify or cancel the booking within its time range
4. Not only the price, but, also you can discuss or complain to Booking.com if any problem arise
5. No need to do a prepayment, you can pay at the counter when you check-in
Here, you have a choice. If you have money in the bank, you can choose the stay with prepayment or deposit needed, and if you dont have money in the bank, you can choose to pay at the counter.
I always choose the stay with an offer to pay at the counter with their currency
So, i will prepare the money from home.

Several experiences;
First, when i already booked one hotel somewhere in Jamsil in Seoul, South Korea, But then i realized it is too far from the downtown and not suitable due to its subway station too. I go to Booking.com and told them, they said I have to pay to the hotel. Then, i email the hotel and talked to the manager what actually happen and why i have to cancel the booking, luckily, i got the very kind-hearten manager. He said, yes, you no need to pay, I will cancel it. Ohh... im so happy, and I told him I pray to The Almighty Allah to cherish his life and his hotel will be famous. That is a story bout cancelling the booking, it is a luck to meet a very kind person like them to deal with.

Another experience, when I booked the stay in Malaysia. Both are in Kuala Terengganu, i did not really remember the matter, but, to sum up, both performed badly to the customers. The recent hotel i booked was several months ago, I already stood in front of the hotel with all my bags, then she called and said that my booking was cancelled because she could not read my Visa card. But, i already in front of the door! and I want to pay in cash!! So mad, i walked to the nearby hotel to check in. At the counter, when i told the girl bout that hotel, two girls beside me also said 'yes, kak, we too. when we go to the hotel, they said our booking was cancelled and we are from Klang!' Oh my GOD, dont do like this to the girls, they are 'ANAK DARA' and far away from their home, if you cancel then they dont know where to stay, if any bad thing happen like kidnap or else, who wants to take a responsibility?? Police will go to your hotel too!! Me, my home just 3 hours drive from here, so I can go back. So, this hotel just a few walks from the bus station I dont recommend, if you want to go to Kuala Terengganu, you can go to Mini Indah Hotel not far from the beach, their services are good and the price also cheap.

Okay, it sounds like I said bad things here, but not Booking.com, the problem is the hotel. So far I still trust Booking.com for another good services like no prepayment, can cancel the booking free, offer deal today discount, can check-in earlier and check-out late for a genius travel like me. Booking.com maybe have to recheck the hotels or accommodations policy or any necessary facilities so the customers always trust Booking.com as a provider for the traveler and care bout their customers' matter regarding the stay. This is my opinion and suggestion as their loyal customer.

One story: Bong House in Seoul. Yes, this is a very good stay in Booking.com that you can choose when you travel to Seoul. I ALWAYS CHOOSE BONG HOUSE when i go to Seoul. And, for January 2019 winter, I stay for 8 nights at Bong House. Mr Bong is a kind-hearten man, he can consider our need, and he's very helpful and sweet person. ALHAMDULILLAH, i always get big discount when I stay there, and one time, in year 2016, He gave me a four persons room under the price of three persons room, Im so happy and i trust him as a good and a man with a big heart. You can cook like at your own home in there, I got a room with a traditional like hanok bed etc, it just around 10 minutes walk from Hyehwa Station Exit 4. You will pass by Ediya Coffee Shop, CU Mart, and other small shops and restaurants, NO HILL so you will not be tired walking, just enjoy walking until you reach CU Mart, then turn left, and Bong House just few steps in front of you!

There are several stays in Seoul, Jakarta, Bandung, Vietnam, including Malacca and Kuala Lumpur. I will update them in future.

Dont forget Bong House when you go to Seoul, South Korea. You can choose via Booking.com OR you can email him directly too.




There are many theories about the teaching and learning English Lang as a second language (L2) as well as theories of teaching and learning writing. Some of these theories are Second Language Acquisition Theory by Kreshen (1982), Chomsky Universal Grammar Theory, Chomsky SLA Theory (Ren Hulin & Xu Na, 2014), Writing Theory (Homstad & Thorson (1994), Situated Cognition Theory, Construction Theory of Writing, and others. The researcher intends to highlight the Situated Cognition Theory to help in understanding the study.

Situated cognition theory
This theory is specifically discussing about writing practices. The Situated Theory (Wilson, 2002; Greeno, 1998; Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) is very useful in explaining about two important matters to affect students’ performance and ability to write. One, writing instruction. Two, an assessment that is sensitive to the conflicting demands of the act of writing.

According to Situated Theory, the cultural background, societal context, and individual situations that pass through teaching (D’Andrade, 1981) are counted in reviewing the writing of the students. Moreover, the theory also believe that learning to write is achieved in the periodic process, situated in the genuine and dynamic learning environments as the act of learning itself (Duguid et al., 1989). This theory recognizes the dynamic nature of learning based on the view of learning in which “cognitive activity is circulated across individuals and situations” (Robbins & Aydede, 2009).

Situated Cognition Theory also focuses on the time, purposes, and needs of the learners in their writing session. In the modern classroom, the theory has recognized that the relationship between the students and teachers is different compare to a traditional, transmission of knowledge-centred classroom. In this view, teachers are not the distributors of knowledge but they are the facilitators pedagogically. To note, this notion of the relationship between students and teachers is in attempt to explain that writing lesson is not just to learn in the classroom, but it needs a kind of the instruction that emphasizes the side-by-side learning, repeated practice, modelling and scaffolding in which all the processes looks more like apprenticing (Lave, 1997; Rogoff, 1991).

One model that looks suitable to use in teaching a writing process is the Six+1 Trait Writing Model by Bellamy (2005). The Analytic Writing Continuum (Bellamy, 2005), which includes refined and clarified definitions of the constructs measured, assesses the following elements of writing:
• Content
The content category describes how effectively the writing establishes and maintains a focus, selects and integrates ideas related to the content or body of the composition (i.e., information, events, emotions, opinions, and perspectives). In addition, put some evidences, details, reasons, anecdotes, examples, descriptions, and characteristics in the explanation of the ideas.
• Structure
The structure category describes how effectively the writing establishes logical arrangement, coherence, and unity within the writing processes of a composition. It can be called as the organization of the composition writing.
• Stance
The stance category describes how effectively the writing converses a perspective by using a certain level of formality, elements of style, and tone suitable for the audience and purpose of writing. It may be suit to be known as a style of writing.
• Sentence Fluency
The sentence fluency category describes how effectively the sentences are constructed to fulfil the purpose of the writing, in terms of rhetorical purpose, rhythm, and flow.
• Diction (Language)
The diction category describes the accuracy and suitability of the words and vocabularies for the writing task and how effectively they create imagery, provide mental pictures, or convey feelings and ideas to be written in the composition.
• Conventions
The conventions category describes how effectively the writing demonstrates age-appropriate control of usage, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and paragraphing. 

Peach & Campos (2008) have reported that the national panel of experts on student writing and the senior NWP researchers determined that even the Six +1 Trait Model necessarily complete, it still required certain modifications to make it more appropriate for the use in research studies. And, the following modifications were implemented in the NWP Analytic Writing Continuum (Peach & Campos, 2008) prior to the scoring conference:
• The scale of the rubric was extended from four to six points in order to ensure sufficient discrimination and therefore to allow increased sensitivity to any changes that might be observed.
• The language defining the traits was clarified to improve the consistency of the assessment of the writing.
• The assessment was modified to focus entirely upon the student writing (where, on occasion, the rubric previously included references to the reader’s responses or to the writer’s personality as the basis for the assessment).

Most of these studies have examined the use of the respective traits in one school in a neighborhood, one grade, or one classroom. All the studies have shown the positive change in student writing performance (Jarmer et al., 2000; Bellamy, 2000). In the fall, for example, in the first test administered, only 14 second graders showed an exceptional brainstorm of ideas, in which by spring that number had risen up to 262 students. Next, in a yearlong intensive traits writing program with Dr. Ruth Culham where the children or kids even primary students have proven a significant writing growth across the six traits of writing (Bridges, 2011). All these examples show that the writing practices using the Six+1 Trait Writing Model may help students to improve their writing performance in English Lang subject.

To compare, this Six+1 Trait Writing Model in the process of composition writing seems to have nearly a similar concept to the latest writing research by Mukundan et al., (2013). They have elaborated that the writing skills of students are taught and assessed based on five different domains of writing (Mukundan et al., 2013) which are;

• Content
The content has to be entirely relevant to the topic of a composition.
• Organization
The structure of the composition writing which includes the logical sequence, clearly stated, and the cohesive presentation of the ideas.
• Language Use
The writing which emphasizes a correct grammatical rules in the entire content of the composition.
• Vocabulary
The sentences built and arranged with an appropriate words choice, using bombastic words, proverbs and idioms etc.
• Mechanisms
The writing which emphasizes on the appropriate flows of paragraphing, punctuation, spelling etc.

Hence, the researcher knows that these two comparison can be blended to suit the situation of the students in the classroom in teaching them how to write effectively, so students can have a better performance in writing as well as in English Lang subject.

Tuesday, November 20, 2018


Initially, it seems like NCTE (2016) and Stephen Kreshen (1982) agreed that reading practises is more likely towards the performance of English among students. But, the researcher found that Read et al., (2013) had almost to support the study in which they stated that writing practises more likely towards the performance of students in English. Read et al., (2013) in their study reviewed that any writing initiatives, such as process writing, traits-based writing, and writing across the curriculum have been encouraged as a way to improve student writing. It can be said that the more students practising their writing, the more they get use and familiar with the contents, ideas, words and the plots of the passages.

Writing Instruction to be believed can be effectively influence students’ accuracy, understanding, and ability to reflect on their writing (Archibald, 2004) which resulted to the quality of the final draft of the composition (Sengupta, 2000). Weissberg (2000) stated that writing plays an important role in developing English as L2, particularly in term of accuracy as well as in the emergence of new language structures. 

And, the writing practices can be effective with these stages of writing instruction (Archibald, 2004);
i) By practicing short writing activities, in which students can build a productive vocabulary during the process of writing
ii) By making its length more expand and vary by developing more complex themes in their writing practices
iii) By writing with the specific strategies (for advanced students).

Next, Peterson J. & Hagen A. (1999) has viewed that students’ writing can be effective and perform well by a creative writing, it is one way students can show off their writing product. This is convinced by that writing has a close relation with a creativity. It is found that creativity is an important aspect of writing (Tse & Shum, 2000), that is the reason for the effective development of the creativity skills in writing (Ibnian, 2010).

Thus, Baucus & Human (2008) suggested that the creativity of students have to be polished in order to produce a good and perform writing. There are many types of creativity means in writing practices. One of them is to write with style as according to Vonnegut J.R (1982) has several style such as keep your writing simple, write about the subject to care about, write with a sound like self-journal, write about what is in mind, and try to get a pity of the readers. Another is story-mapping. The story-mapping technique in writing a composition has a positive impact on the developing a short story writing among students (Ibnian, 2010). 

Another example, teacher can notice the creative students’ writing when they are able to write several paragraphs in an orderly manner (Ibnian, 2010). It is believed that stimulating a creativity and generating ideas is the most effective way of teaching writing (Luqman M. Rababah et al., 2013).
Moreover, Riduan & Lim (2009) revealed that the key in producing good writing or essays is by using multiple writing strategies, how to regulate the strategies for generating ideas or for revising what has been written. It is supported by Nooreiny Maarof & Mazlin Murat (2013) by stating that various strategies in improving students’ writing need to be encouraged and applied among students by their teachers. Writing strategies is very important to know and follow as they help students to generate the effective composition writing as studied by many researchers (Chien, 2010; Hu & Chen, 2007; Mu & Carrington, 2007; Ridhuan & Abdullah, 2009). It is seen that there is a different performance in writing exercises or tests between student with strategies and students without strategies. Ridhuan & Abdullah (2009) stated that weak students do not often plan their writing and frequently begin writing immediately.

At the same manner, Hu and Chen (2007) observed that good ESL writers weight carefully on decisions on what to write and on how to proceed, indicating the importance of quality of planning over time spent planning. It means that only students who confident that they can write well can plan about what to write. And, it seems to match with Bandura A., (1986) who clarified that students with a strong sense of confidence in practising the task of writing is a person with a strong self-efficacy. This is reconfirmed by Parilah M. Shah et al., (2011) that students with high sense of self-efficacy can produce a good – quality writing. In fact, many previous researchers have found that self-efficacy has a strong relationship with a high performance in writing (Pajares F., 2000; Pajares F. & M.J Johnson, 1996; Pajares F. & Valiente. G., 2001).

After that, with the planning and the process of writing within several stages by the help of teachers (Urquhart & Mclver, 2005), it can improve students’ writing as well as encourages them to use an accurate language (Harmer, 2004). Thus, it can be stated that writing is a process of expressing ideas and feeling within several stages to produce a smooth flow, qualified and alive writing.  By frequent practises of writing task, students will get use to planning as simple as brainstorming the ideas before writing even within a limited time in the examination.

To concern, teachers must know their students and teach them how to write with multiple strategies according to their linguistic background, proficiency and skills. Peach and Campos (2008) also agree to state that teacher has important role in helping students to write by reporting that on-site teacher-consultants are at the centre of NYCWP’s work, where the consultants typically spend one to four days per week in participating teachers’ schools, offering various forms of assistance including (but not limited to) one-on-one mentoring to develop lessons and projects; coaching and modelling in classrooms; team-teaching; recommending materials and resources; reviewing student work; introducing writing strategies such as revision and editing; encouraging critical response to texts and student writing; counselling on the use of small-group/whole-class activities; and providing outreach and counsel to interdisciplinary teams, department heads, coaches, assistant principals, and principals.

Briefly, teachers have to change the methods of delivering the knowledge and skills in teaching writing especially in the classroom. The approaches of ‘teacher-centered’, ‘chalk and talk’ and ‘textbook-oriented’ have to be refurbished to align the teaching and learning of writing to adhere to the blueprint of the Tenth Malaysia Plan (Malini Ganapathi, 2014). Moreover, Thulasi et al., (2015) has suggested that teachers have to deliver writing instructions with a very clear elaboration until all students at all and different levels of intellectual understand the methods or stages of writing. 

Then, it is easy for them to write a composition in the classroom. Mu & Carrington (2007) clarified that the L2 writing process is strategically, bombastically and linguistically different from the FL writing processes and novice L2 writers must be taught L2 writing strategies clearly.

But, this is contradictory to the study of Akyel& Kamisli (1997) who claimed that students who used similar composing strategies in both language FL and L2 show a positive writing effect. It is followed by Leonore G. & E. Schneider (2006) who said that if students have difficulties in most all of language systems in their native language (FL), they will experience a problem in learning a foreign language. Siti Hamin and Abdul Hameed (2006) seemed to agree by stating that generating ideas using FL among students with low English proficiency helped them to produce higher quantity of ideas and better quality essays in terms of overall score, content, language, organization, vocabulary and mechanics. It means that brainstorming and generating ideas in Bahasa Malaysia and write in English language can help these students to produce a quality composition writing. This statement is supported by Gabrys –Barker (2008) who argued that students with lacking of grammar rules in their FL will have the most trouble with grammar (for instance, past tense rules) in writing in English as L2.  

Furthermore, it is found that the correct flow of writing can help students to produce the best composition writing. What is the meaning of flow in the scope of writing? It is defined by Walden University Writing Centre (2013) as one of the features and the techniques of good writing that make the readers easy to read and judge as well as understand. In this way, a good flow is very similar to a good trip on the straight road with a variety scenery in the left or the right of the road. While Lynch T. & Anderson K. (2013) has defined it as a fluent or as a smooth running liquid, and one of the key factors in a fluent composition writing is the order or arrangement of the ideas within the sentence, particularly at the beginning of the sentence. How to produce a flow writing? It is said that when the readers get interested in reading the writing or understand the sequences of the ideas smoothly moving down from the beginning until the end, it means that the writing is good or has flow.  

Walden University Writing Centre (2013) have given a useful ideas regarding the flow of writing. One, there are several ways to creating flow involves using logical connections between ideas, strong topic sentences to start paragraphs, transitions to link sentences, concise wording, and a varied sentence structure. In addition, the logical connections between ideas in the composition writing begin with the introduction, the content and the conclusion. In which, it makes the essay looks alive and can get the reader's attention and focus. It will be more flow if students can use a transition in writing the sentences. The transitions create flow of writing by using a linking ideas and sentences such as the word 'additionally', 'likewise', etc. And, the best flow in writing will be created by varying of words used and it will get the readers interested in the ideas (Walden University Writing Centre, 2013).

What is more, NCTE (2016) suggested that, the basis of good writing is a good talk, and younger children especially grow into stronger control of language when loving adults particularly parents share experiences and rich talk about those experiences. Then, parents must be as a helper when their children write. Parents can talk through their ideas with them, help them discover what they want to say, and help them with spelling, punctuation, and usage of words etc. In fact, not only parents but teachers too, especially during teaching and learning session in the school, in which the researcher suggests the teacher should acts like a parent for the students in helping them to write in their writing classes.

Akinwamide (2012) later gives an idea to use a product approach which is known as Model Approach as a way to get an effective writing. It is believed can encourage students to produce an end product (Thulasi et al., 2015) which is similar to the model essay provided by teachers. To implement, students imitate the whole sentences in the model essay to get familiar with its content and language structure, then transform them into a new essay perfectly as the one they have copied by focusing on the correct language (Mourtaga, 2004). It not means that students submit exactly as the model essay. Because, the end product is merely from their own ideas. They just need to follow the structure of the plots and the flows of the content presented in the model essay. Research studies has shown that models are very helpful for students to write, such providing a lot of information for their writing (Wingate, 2012). But, it seemed to block students from achieving better writing qualities (Nazim & Ahmad, 2012).

In brief, there are several points to highlight can help students to produce an effective writing. These are, the effective writing instruction and assessment, teachers’ model and example papers, providing the detail and relevant feedback, and chances for multiple revisions that are specific to individual writers (Graham & Perin, 2007). Besides, to write with multiple strategies within the best flow of writing also help students to produce an effective writing.

2.5.1    To Measure The Effectiveness Of The Task Of Writing And The Performance of Students’ Writing
At the beginning, writing task itself is the best tool to measure the performance of students in English Lang.  According to several scholars, it is regarded to be the ultimate and the most important skill a language learner can attain (Urquhart & McIver: 2005, Reid: 2001, Jordan: 1990). Writing skill in a foreign language perhaps more useful than speaking or listening skill in that language because the place and time for a communication to occur is not provided very easily (Reid, 2001).

Yet, to measure the writing performance, there are several methods can be considered as suitable and effective to be suit, particularly among form five students. Questions emerged regarding how language proficiency could be enhanced and how best to measure the level of language proficiency (Moeller, 2015). On the top, the focus on student language proficiency can be measured through performance-based tasks made itself felt both in language learning and teaching researches.

According to Chien (2010) claimed that high achievers are focusing on revising and editing which basically fall under the assessment of students’ performance in writing. It means students have to write and re-write the same composition each time the teacher checks or revises their work. Sadly, not all students are exposed to writing the same composition repeatedly to improve their writing. The experience of Kristina Robertson (N.d) can be treated as an evidence, where in her experience in teaching some Asian students in the classroom, they were very confused to listen her order to revise their writing as their writing considered as a "first draft." In their experience, they had always write an essay once then handed it in as "the final," so the teacher would correct it. The idea that they had to write it over again after the correction didn't make sense to them.

Conversely, Baker and Boonkit (2004) and Nooreiny & Mazlin (2013) found no significant difference in the frequency of writing strategy use between high-intermediate and low proficiency students. Nooreiny & Mazlin (2013) then discovered that English proficiency has affected the type of strategy use in which high-proficient students will plan, brainstorm and outline in English before writing. Instead of their differences in term of views about the strategy of writing among different students’ ability, but the important is, writing help students to improve students’ performance in English lesson as a whole. It shows a close relation between the process or flow of the writing and the assessment of writing in helping students to write well.

Definitely, there are several sets of test or examination must be structured to measure students’ English language proficiency whether in speaking and listening, reading or writing. When students already familiar with the questions or topics to write, it is easy for them to answer the questions in the examination. To remind, writing component is given much credit (marks) in the examination (Thulasi et al., 2015; Fauziah & Abd Rahim, 2015) especially in SPM examination.

It is really important for students to get the right choices of exercises and practices coaching as well as the assessment to help them to be more prepare to be writers (Graham & Perin, 2007; McCarthey, 2008). How to build and conduct the practices, exercises and the assessment is merely based on the curriculum set by the school and the creativity and skills of the English teachers themselves. One of them is a classroom assessment like a writing test once a week or once a month. Bagheridoust & Husseini (2011) explained that the function of class tests is to locate the areas of difficulties encountered by students in learning the subject. It is also to evaluate the effectiveness of teachers’ way of teaching in the class. In these cases, some types of writing tests are needed to measure the capabilities of the class as fairly as possible. It is expected that teachers can notice the weaknesses of the writing practices done in the classroom by referring to the students’ test gradually from week to week or month to month.
Besides, Moeller (2015) suggested that the pair work, group work, cooperative/ collaborative learning settings among students, authentic materials, culturally integrated lesson content, and interactive tasks focused on the cognitive and affective domains were integrated into foreign language classrooms. It may related to the role of peer in improving the writing of students. As Defazio et al., (2010) added a review by peers as one way to correct and improve students’ writing, it is an evaluation at various stages of the assignment, self-reflection and feedback through weekly podcasts in their suggestions in assessing student writing.

Additionally, Malini G. (2014) has reported that majority of the group work was rated by their peers as demonstrating ‘excellence’ in effectively presenting relevant thesis statements, substantial topic sentences and supporting details that portray their understanding and requirements of the essay genre and topic. While Archibald (2004) suggested two methods in measuring the writing of students, which are feedback and a direct evaluation by the English teacher.

When the teacher gives feedback on students’ writing paper, they will be seen as the examiner. But, the teacher has several roles other than the examiner (Peterson & Hagen, 1999) such as;
1)  The audience who will respond to ideas in students’ writing
2)  The assistant who will help students, may by telling them what to correct and where to correct. As Harmer J. (2004) viewed this teacher’s role as responding and correcting students’ writing.
3)  The resource who is always available when students need information or guidance
4)  The editor who will help to rearrange pieces of writing to produce the best composition. Here, students will rearrange pieces of writing each time teacher assess and comment until they get the best writing product. This is called as Dynamic process of writing according to Leonhard (2002) as it is a process of continuous writing through a support from teacher as they learn new skills.

Furthermore, according to Peterson & Hagen (1999), there are several ways of correcting students’ writing work which can be applied by teachers such as;
1)  Selective correction, in which the teacher only correct certain part within the composition. Teacher has to tell students that this time the correction only focus on punctuation, so students can pay a focus on that part too.
2)  Using a marking scale, in which the teacher corrects the writing based on criteria such as grammar, vocabulary, coherence etc. Here, teacher will show to students which part is wrong
3)  Using correction symbols, in which the teacher uses certain symbol such as λ (something is missing), Ϲ (concord mistake) or ᴘ (punctuation mistake). So, students will think by themselves the mistake and correct it themselves.
4)  Reformulation, in which the teacher shows a way students can write something more correctly. Teacher can show the difference between the correct sentence and the incorrect sentence.
5)  Remedial Teaching, in which teacher uses the approach of showing to the whole class about the mistake done by student one by one. So, they are sharing what is the mistake and how to correct.

At the end, a lot of writing practices in English Lang will increase the students’ performance in English Lang. It is accurately similar to Naginder (2006) who said that students are evaluated based on their performance in the exam or display good writing skills. Malini Ganapathi (2014) in her study has confirmed that students are motivated and interested in their lessons, the learning outcomes are productive. It is followed by Archibald (2004) by stating that the instruction in writing can effectively improve the students’ proficiency in English subject.

Written by,
Yasmine Mohamad
2018 / IIUM

#Copy & paste, but dont forget to change the sentences, and put only the main content. Try arrange your own sentences.